Exploring some of the ultimate questions that confront humanity, and responding imaginatively to them;
The ups, downs and meaning(s) of life’s journey.
For Sikhs, religious experience is the only basis for religious claims. Since these are available to everyone, all humans are considered to be equal and there is no place for priests.
The source of all spiritual experience for Sikhs, is God Himself. For Sikhs, God is seen as a missing dimension of our everyday lives. Nine gates give us sensory impressions of maya but we need to open the Tenth Gate to experience God in our lives and to be authentic or real.
Sikh faith is not about partisan doctrine or debate but the universal human experience and relationship. Rather, feelings are the evidence of faith.
These feelings form the basis of personally informed discussion within the sadhsangat or fellowship. They are also tuned by the Gurbani or sacred song which is organized into 31 ragas or measures of South Asian music that each reflect a particular emotional mood / state of mind.
Feelings and beliefs are experiences that are meaningful to an individual. Sikhs consider that it is not necessary to justified this to any other person whether for reasons of faith or science. An intimate relationship cannot easily be discussed. The Gurus use a variety of terms for God including mother, father, brother, childhood friend, friend and lover. Gwen Griffith-Dickson in her study of the philosophy of religious experience points out, for instance, that people’s reports of sexual experiences will be different and often contradictory. A scientific description of the event will not explain what it feels like or what it means to have one.
Religious practices are only valid if they encourage a spiritual experience:
Of all religions, the best religion is to chant the Name of the Lord and maintain pure conduct. Of all religious rituals, the most sublime ritual is to erase the filth of the dirty mind in the Company of the Holy. Of all efforts, the best effort is to chant the Name of the Lord in the heart, forever. Of all speech, the most ambrosial speech is to hear the Lord’s Praise and chant it with the tongue. Of all places, the most sublime place, O Nanak, is that heart in which the Name of the Lord abides (Guru Granth Sahib Ji : 266).
The Gurus did not believe in religion as such. They were seekers after truth and so the ‘truths’ they promote are to be realized through reflection and experience.
Sikhs regard life as full of choices. Sikhs say that people can either choose to focus on God and live with That in their lives or stumble on with a focus on the doubting self.
Sikhs see Haumai or ‘Am I-ness?’ as the fundamental problem. Doubt leads people to fear and from there to self-centredness. This is the key problem of a manmukh or self-centred person. However, for Sikhs, the real origin of the self is that it has been made by God and contains the Divine imprint or Shabad. This Shabad or Word is God and is the reason why God is with and in all people.
The Gurus taught the Unity of Being: ‘1-All-Creativity Is Reality’. The Gurus taught that separating matter and spirit or the phenomenal and noumenal worlds was the root of ignorance.
Sikhs consider that evil is caused by people and they will be punished for it. It is a result of free will which makes it possible for us to have the chance to enjoy a relationship with God. The Sikh response can be seen as part of a more general mystical theodicy where suffering can cause people to re-focus their lives and bring them closer to God.
The purpose of life is to become a “sachiara” – truthful, real, authentic – by breaking through the “dam of filth” and re-unite with God who dwells inside us as “fragrance in a flower”, a “reflection in a mirror”, “fire inside of wood”. In re-connecting to the “breath of life” humans connect with God as “water flows into water”.
The final destiny of all beings is to re-unite with God as “sparks from a fire”. These images are not literal descriptions of the relationship between humans and God, however, since what language can tell us about can be defined as the world of phenomena. What lies beyond the reach of language is the Naam, the person of God, the Numinous who is known through personal experience through God’s own power, God’s grace.
It is impossible to describe God. As it says in the Guru Granth Sahib Ji:
If it is sayable, it is within the range of the word, If it is unsayable, it is outside the steady grasp of the mind, The real is where the sayable and the unsayable meet.
What the real truly is, is altogether beyond comprehension (GGS 340).
Although people can say something about their relationship with God there is a limit to what can be communicated through language. Kabir writes: “Inexpressible is the story of Love. It cannot be revealed by words, Like the dumb eating sweet-meat, Only smiles, the sweetness he cannot tell”. The implication of this is that the maps of the different religions, including Sikhism, can be used or ignored; what is important is the personal experience of the actual territory of God. Guru Gobind Singh Ji writes: “I salute That which is beyond religion.”
For Sikhs, the Guru Granth Sahib Ji is an answer to the question. “How can we be Real? How can we break the dam of waste blocking us from Reality?” (Guru Granth Sahib Ji: 1)
“1 God is Reality, Naam” (Guru Granth Sahib: 1). The numeral ‘1’ at the beginning of the Guru Granth Sahib emphases that there should not be any confusion about the Oneness of God and the Unity in existence.
The Gurus have no concept of ‘science’ as an independent area of enquiry. The aim of a Sikh life is to be a ‘sachiara’ – truthful or real or authentic – in every area of life.
Sikhs consider that both science and religion are enterprises to do with seeking the truth. The word ‘Sikh’ is etymologically linked to with ‘seeker’ of truth.
Sikhs feel that religious experience cannot be explained as language cannot ‘capture’ God.
Sikhs consider that both science and religion are engaged in the same process, i.e. discovering the truth.
There are similarities in some fundamental Sikh beliefs, for instance, that all life has evolved from water. “O Nanak, this world is all water; everything came from water” (Guru Granth Sahib Ji: 1283).
One could argue that life derived from carbon found in rocks and/or exists deep inside rocks: “From rocks and stones He created living beings; He places their nourishment before them” (Guru Granth Sahib Ji: 10).
On the other hand, there are some ideas yet to be confirmed by science. There is a clear idea that there are limitless worlds and that God can be approached in many different ways. Therefore, there are saints of other worlds – in other worlds, intelligent and indeed religious life on other planets. Speaking of the Court of God, “The devotees of many worlds dwell there. They celebrate; their minds are imbued with the True Lord” (Guru Granth SahibJi : 8).
Bains, T.S., 2003. The Four Quarters of the Night. s.l.: McGill-Queen’s UP.
Baldwin, S.S., 1999. English Lessons and Other Stories. Goose Lane, Fredericton, NB, Canada: s.n.
Baneree, A.C., 1983. The Sikh Gurus and their Religion. s.l.: Munshi Ram Manohar Lal.
Banerjee, I., 1979. The Evolution of the Khalsa. s.l.: A Mukherjee.
Bindra, P.S., 1997. Thus Sayeth Gurbani. s.l.: s.n.
Brar, G.K., 1994. Guru Nanak’s Philosophy of Politics. Punjab, India: s.n.
Brard, G.S., 2007. East of Indus : My Memories of Old Punjab. s.l.: Hemkunt Publishers.
Butalia, U., 2000. The Other Side of Silence: Voices from the Partition of India. Durham, NC: Duke UP.
Caur, A. & Dayal, M.K., 2005. Nanak: The Guru. New Delhi: Rupa.
Chandra, V., 2007. Sacred Games. New York: Harper Collins.
Cunningham, J.D., 2002. History of the Sikhs. Amritsar: Satvic Media.
Dilgeer, H.S., 1995. Akal Takht Sahib. Delhi: National Book Shop.
Gill, M.K., 1996. Eminent Sikh Women. s.l.: South Asia Books.
Goswamy, B.N. (ed.), 2000. Piety and Splendour: Sikh Heritage in Art. New Delhi: National Museum.
Grewal, G.S., 2007. The Searching Eye. s.l: Rupa.
Grewal, J., 2007. Betrayed by the State: The Anti-Sikh pogrom of 1984. London: Penguin.
Grewal, J.S. & Bal, S.S., 1967. Guru Gobind Singh. Chandigarh, Panjab University.
Grewal, J.S. & Habib, I., 2002. Sikh History from Persian Sources. s.l.: Tulika.
Grewal, J.S. (ed.), 2004. Khalsa, Sikh and Non Sikh Perspectives. s.l.: Manohar.
Grewal, J.S., 1988. Contesting Interpretations of the Sikh Tradition. s.l.: Manohar.
Grewal, J.S., 1992. Guru Nanak in Western Scholarship. s.l.: South Asia Books.
Grewal, J.S., 1994. The Sikhs of The Punjab. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Grewal. J.S., 1996. The Akalis, A short History.Chandigarh: Punjab Studies Publication.
Gupta, H.R., 2000. History of the Sikhs. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.
Hams, S., 1988. A Reconstruction of Sikh History From Sikh Literature. s.l.: ABS Publications.
Harbans, S.N., 2004. Connecting the Dots in Sikh History. Chandigarh: IOSS.
Jagdev, S.S., n.d. Bed Time Stories. s.l.: s.n.
Kapoor, S.S., 1999. Guru Granth Sahib: An Introductory Study. s.l.: Hemkunt Press.
Kapoor, S.S., n.d. Saint Soldier. s.l.: South Asia Books.
Kapur, S.S., 2001. Sikhism: 1000 questions Answered. s.l.: Hemkunt.
Kau, A. & Kau, R., n.d. Bindu’s Wedding. s.l.: s.n.
Kaur, M., 1983. The Golden Temple: Past and Present.Amritsar: s.n.
Kaur-Singh, N., 1995. The Name of My Beloved: Verses of the Sikh Gurus. New Delhi: Penguin.
Kaur-Singh, N., 2004.Sikhism, Facts on File. s.l.: Facts on File.
Kaur-Singh, N., 2005. The Birth of the Khalsa: A Feminist Re-Memory of Sikh Identity. New York: State University of New York Press.
Kohli, S.S., 1992. A Conceptual Encylopaedia of Guru Granth Sahib. New Delhi: Manohar.
Lehalkhar, G.S., s.d. A Punjabi Word Processor. Patiala: Punjabi University.
Macauliffe, M.A., 1963. The Sikh Religion. Delhi: S. Chand.
Madra, A.S. & Singh, P., 1999. Warrior Saints. London: I.B. Tauris.
Mann, G.S., 2001. The Making of Sikh Scripture. New York: OUP.
McLeod, W.H., 1986. Punjabis in New Zealand. Amritsar: Guru Nanak Dev University.
McLeod, W.H., 1989. The Sikhs: History, Religion & Society. New York: Columbia UP.
McLeod, W.H., 1989. Who is A Sikh? Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McLeod, W.H., 1990. Textual Sources for the Study of Sikhism.
McLeod, W.H., 1996. Guru Nanak and the Sikh Religion.
Mitta, M. & Phoolka, H.S. When A Tree Shook Delhi. n.l.: Roli.
Nagra, J.S., 1996. Punjabi Made Easy Level 1-3. s.l.: Nagra Publications.
Nesbitt, E., 2005. Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Owen Cole, W. & Sambhi, P.S., 1995. The Sikhs: their Religious Beliefs and Practices. s.l.: Sussex Academic.
Owen Cole, W., 1994. Sikhism. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
Owen Cole, W., 2005. Teach Yourself Sikhism. 2ed. s.l.:McGraw-Hill.
Qaiser, I., 1998. Historical Sikh Shrines in Pakistan. Lahore: Punjab History Board.
Rai, D., 1996. Sahib-e-Kamaal Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Amritsar: Gurmat Sahit Charitable Trust.
Rait, S.K., n.d. Sikh Women In England: Religious, Social and Cultural Beliefs. s.l.: Stylus Publishing.
Sahni, R.R. (ed.), n.d. Struggle for Reform in Sikh Shrines. Amritsar: Ganda Singh, SGPC.
Saund, D.S., n.d. Congressman From India. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, Incorporated.
Shackle, C. (ed.), 2005. Teachings of the Sikh Gurus, Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. Arvind Mandair: Routledge, 2005.
Shackle, C., 1983. Introduction to the Sacred Language of the Sikhs. London: School of Oriental & African Studies
Singh, A. & Singh, R.K., n.d. Bindu’s Wedding. s.l.: s.n.
Singh, D., 1984. The Sikh Ideology. New Delhi: Guru Nanak Foundation.
Singh, F., 1979. Guru Amar Das, Life and Teachings. s.l.: Sterling.
Singh, G., 1988. A History of the Sikh People. s.l.: Allied Publishers.
Singh, G., 1997. . The Singh Sabha and Other Socio-Religious Movements in the Punjab 1850-1925. s.l.: Punjabi University.
Singh, G., 1999. Guru Gobind Singh. s.l.: South Asia Books.
Singh, G., 2003. The Rise of Sikhs Abroad. New Delhi: Rupa & Co.
Singh, G., 2006. Sikhs in Britain: The Making of a Community. Darshan Singh Tatla: Palgrave Macmillan.
Singh, H., 1971. Guru Gobind Singh. Chandigarh, Guru Gobind Singh Foundation.
Singh, H., 1979. Guru Nanak. Patiala: Punjabi University.
Singh, H., 1994. Guru Tegh Bahadur. s.l.: South Asia Books.
Singh, H., 1995. Berkeley Lectures on Sikhism. 2ed. s.l.: South Asia Books.
Singh, H., 1999. The Heritage of the Sikhs. New Delhi: Manohar.
Singh, H., 2000. In the Line of Duty: a Soldier Remembers. New Delhi: Lancer Publishers & Distributors. pp.440, Rs. 595
Singh, I.J., 1998. Sikhs & Sikhism: A View With a Bias. Guelph, Canada: Centennial Foundation
Singh, J., n.d. The Sikh Tree. s.l.: s.n.
Singh, K., (ed.), 2004. History of the Sikhs and their Religion, Vol. 1. s.l.: s.n.
Singh, K., 1998. Life of Guru Gobind Singh. Ludhiana: Lahore Book Shop.
Singh, K., 1992. My Bleeding Punjab. s.l.: s.n.
Singh, K., 1993. Perspectives on Sikh Polity. New Delhi: Dawn Publishers’ Distributors.
Singh, K., 1999. A History of The Sikhs. New Delhi: Oxford UP.
Singh, K., 2001. Parasaraprasna. Amritsar: Guru Nanak Dev University.
Singh, K., 2006. The Sikhs And Transfer of Power (1942-1947). s.l.: Punjabi University.
Singh, K., 2007. Train to Pakistan. New Delhi: Roli Books Pvt Ltd.
Singh, M., 1983. The Akali Movement. Delhi: s.n.
Singh, N., 1994. Canadian Sikhs: History, Religion, and Culture of Sikhs in North
America. s.l.: s.n.
Singh, P. & Sekhon, H.K., 2001. Garland Around My Neck: The Story of Puran Singh of Pingalwara. New Delhi: UBS Pub.
Singh, P., 1992. Gurdwaras in India and Around the World. Delhi: s.n.
Singh, P., 2000. Guru Granth Sahib, Canon, Meaning and Authority. Oxford: OUP.
Singh, P., 2004. The Ten Masters. Amritsar: Singh Brothers
Singh, P., 2006. Life and Work of Guru Arjan. Oxford: OUP.
Singh, R., 2004. Guru Nanak: His Life & Teachings. New Delhi: Rupa.
Singh, R., n.d. Bir Bangdi Nama. s.l.: s.n.
Singh, S., 1996. About Compilation of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. s.l.: Lok Sahit Parkashan. Translated by Singh, D.
Singh, S., 2005. The Sikhs in History. Amritsar: Singh Brothers.
Singh, G., 1996. Tandav of the Centaur. s.l.: Institute of Sikh Studies.
Singh, T. & Singh, G., 1999. A Short History of The Sikhs. Patiala: Punjabi University.
Singh, T. et al., 2000. The Sacred Writings of the Sikhs. New Delhi: Orient Longman.
Singh, T., 1967. Guru Tegh Bahadur, prophet and martyr, a biography. Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee.
Singh, T., 1981. Life of Guru Hari Krishan: a biography and history. Delhi: Sikh Gurdwara Management Committee.
Tatla, D.S., n.d. Sikh Diaspora. Washington: University of Washington Press.
Tully, M., 1991. Amritsar: Mrs. Gandhi’s Last Battle. s.l.: South Asia Books.
Waheeduddin, F.S., 2001. The Real Ranjit Singh. Patiala: Punjabi University.
In Association with Amazon